|工作中||S0||The system is fully usable.
Hardware components that are not in use can save power by entering a lower power state.
|S0 低功耗||Some SoC systems support a low-power idle state known as Modern Standby.
In this state, the system can very quickly switch from a low-power state to high-power state, so that it can respond quickly to hardware and network events.
Systems that support Modern Standby do not use S1-S3.
|The system appears to be off.
Power consumed in these states (S1-S3) is less than S0 and more than S4; S3 consumes less power than S2, and S2 consumes less power than S1. Systems typically support one of these three states, not all three.
In these states (S1-S3), volatile memory is kept refreshed to maintain the system state. Some components remain powered so the computer can wake from input from the keyboard, LAN, or a USB device.
Hybrid sleep, used on desktops, is where a system uses a hibernation file with S1-S3. The hibernation file saves the system state in case the system loses power while in sleep.
|休眠||S4||The system appears to be off.
Power consumption is reduced to the lowest level. The system saves the contents of volatile memory to a hibernation file to preserve system state. Some components remain powered so the computer can wake from input from the keyboard, LAN, or a USB device. The working context can be restored if it is stored on nonvolatile media.
Fast startup is where the user is logged off before the hibernation file is created. This allows for a smaller hibernation file, more appropriate for systems with less storage capabilities.
|软关机||S5||The system appears to be off.
This state is comprised of a full shutdown and boot cycle.
|硬关机||G3||The system is completely off and consumes no power.
The system returns to the working state only after a full reboot.
During the working state, the system is awake and running. In simple terms, the device is "on." Whether the screen is on or off, the device is in a full running state.
睡眠 (Modern Standby)
In the S0 low-power idle mode of the working state, also referred to as Modern Standby, the system remains partially running. During Modern Standby, the system can stay up-to-date whenever a suitable network is available and also wake when real-time action is required, such as OS maintenance. Modern Standby wakes significantly faster than S1-S3. For more info, see Modern Standby.
只有部分 SoC 系统支持 Modern Standby，支持的系统将不支持 S1-S3 状态。
The system enters sleep based on a number of criteria, including user or application activity and preferences that the user sets on the Power & sleep page of the Settings app. By default, the system uses the lowest-powered sleep state supported by all enabled wake-up devices.
Windows uses hibernation to provide a fast startup experience. When available, it's also used on mobile devices to extend the usable battery life of a system by giving a mechanism to save all of the user’s state prior to shutting down the system. In a Hibernate transition, all the contents of memory are written to a file on the primary system drive, the hibernation file. This preserves the state of the operating system, applications, and devices. In the case where the combined memory footprint consumes all of physical memory, the hibernation file must be large enough to ensure there will be space to save all the contents of physical memory. Since data is written to non-volatile storage, DRAM does not need to maintain self-refresh and can be powered off, which means power consumption of hibernation is very low, almost the same as power off.
Hibernation files are used for hybrid sleep, fast startup, and standard hibernation (described earlier). There are two types, differentiated by size, a full and reduced size hibernation file. Only fast startup can use a reduced hibernation file.
|完整||物理内存的 40%||hibernate, hybrid sleep, fast startup|
|精简||物理内存的 20%||fast startup|
To verify or change the type of hibernation file used, run the powercfg utility. The following examples demonstrate how. For more information, run
powercfg /? hibernate.
|powercfg /a||Verify the hibernation file type.
When a full hibernation file is used, the results state that hibernation is an available option. When a reduced hibernation file is used, the results will say hibernation is not supported. If the system has no hibernation file at all, the results will say hibernation has not been enabled.
|powercfg /h /type full||Change the hibernation file type to full.
This is not recommended on systems with less than 32GB of storage.
|powercfg /h /type reduced||Change the hibernation file type to reduced.
If the command returns "the parameter is incorrect", see the following example.
|powercfg /h /size 0
powercfg /h /type reduced
|Retry changing the hibernation file type to reduced.
If the hibernation file is set to a custom size greater than 40%, you must first set the size of the file to zero. Then retry the reduced configuration.
The soft off state is when the system fully shuts down without a hibernation file. Soft off is also known as a "full shutdown." During a full shutdown and boot, the entire user session is torn down and restarted on the next boot. Consequently, a boot/startup from this state takes significantly longer than S1-S4. A full shutdown (S5) occurs when a system restart is requested (or an application calls a shutdown API).
In this state, the system is completely off and consumes no power. The system returns to the working state only after a full reboot.
The wake-on-LAN (WOL) feature wakes the computer from a low power state when a network adapter detects a WOL event (typically, a specially constructed Ethernet packet).
WOL is supported from sleep (S3) or hibernate (S4). It is not supported from fast startup or soft off (S5) shutdown states. NICs are not armed for wake in these states because users do not expect their systems to wake up on their own.
Windows 官方并不支持从软关机 (S5) 状态进行网络唤醒，但是有一些主板的 BIOS 是支持从软关机状态中唤醒机器的。
可以使用 powercfg 命令报包电池状态：
powercfg /batteryreport /output report.html